“Ignorance is our natural state; it is a product of the way the mind works.” Statements like that, proffered by cognitive scientists Philip Fernbach and Steven Sloman in the New York Times, demonstrate that cognitive science has become the phrenology of our day.
Phrenology was a pseudoscience in the early 19th century that focused on measurements of the human skull. It purported to link specific bumps and nodes with traits and characteristics of the mind and personality. Like cognitive science today, phrenology was quite influential with psychiatry.
Developed by German physician Franz Gall in 1796, the “assumption [of phrenology] that character, thoughts, and emotions are located in specific parts of the brain is considered an important historical advance toward neuropsychology.”
Cognitive science is “the study of thought, learning,

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